In Nigeria, like in so many other places, there are two recognized seasons; the dry (harmattan) and the rainy (wet) season.
The major difference between both seasons is that during the wet season, water comes from rainfall but during the dry season, the farmer needs to deliberately source for water through irrigation, diverting water from streams and rivers etc
Fruits, fresh corn and almost all vegetables are usually scarce in the dry season thereby creating chances for farmers who plant in this season to enjoy a high stream of income for several months before rainfall begins.
Planting can be done skillfully with regards to this without conforming to the current season by choosing the right variety.
Anything can be planted in dry season provided the right decision is made with regards to the choice of variety and the farmer ensures functional irrigation facilities are in place.
For instance, for tomatoes there are three varieties; Admiral, Emerald and Sahara.
Amiral is favourable for the wet season while Emerald is modified for when crossing from the wet to the dry season.
Sahara on the other hand can withstand a shortage of water making it suitable for the dry season.
This is also applicable for several other crops like rice, maize etc
Moving forward it is important to note that each season is unique and requires certain techniques and best practices to be able to grow plants properly with a minimal loss so as to maximize profit from each season.
For the dry season, a robust irrigation method is what ensures a successful farming system.
The crops should be watered as required but avoid watering the leaves so you do not create an atmosphere for fungal spores.
A soaker hose, watering can, or drip irrigation system should be utilised.
Also, planting should be done early in the morning or later in the evening. Perfect distance and spacing should also be observed to prevent competition amongst crops.
The method of preparing land for farming is slightly different from what is obtained in the wet season Farming. For the dry season, the land is prepared by clearing as well as smoothing and grading of land. After filling the soil, fertilizer can be added to the water coming from the irrigation source.
For the wet season, a major problem that occurs is waterlogging therefore good drainage is required.
To achieve this, plant in raised heaps or beds.
Also, add enough organic matter to the soil.
Staking is also necessary to avoid your crops lying on wet soil.
Another major problem that occurs during the wet season is erosion.
To solve the problem of erosion, mulching should be adapted, this will help in retaining vital moisture in the soil.
Finally, harvest your crops on time because the longer they stay on the stalk, the higher the chance of pest attack, diseases and spoilage.